James algebra uses three types of spatial containers/boundaries to represent a wide variety of number types (integers, rationals, irrationals, reals, imaginaries), as well as to implement all common operations. The three top rows in the * Image* show the James algebra representation of addition, multiplication, and raising to a power. The bottom three rows show subtraction, division, and roots. James algebra is an entirely different approach to iconic arithmetic than those presented in the Arithmetic section. Several unique numerical concepts arise from this approach.

**applies to negative and fractional counts, as well as to integer counts. The**

*Generalized cardinality***unifies subtraction, division, roots, and logarithms into a single boundary structure differentiated by spatial nesting rather than by algebraic operation. The**

*generalized inverse***,**

*James imaginary**A Calculus of Number Based on Spatial Forms*, is available online on the Laws of Form website.

This page is under construction, July 2013.

### Two Papers

Until this page is constructed, the concept, structure and application of James algebra is presented in two papers, The first, James Three-Boundary Iconic Algebra, was written by Jeffrey James and myself in 1993. The second, James Numbers, I wrote in 2000 in order to summarize what we knew about James algebra.